Afghanistan flag Afghanistan: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Afghanistan

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
Supreme Leader of the Taliban movement: Hibatullah Akhundzada
Next Election Dates
Main Political Parties
Afghanistan had a multi-party system with numerous political parties before the takeover of the Talibans. The Taliban government enforces an authoritarian state and has banned other political parties.
Executive Power
After taking power in August 2021, the Taliban established a regime that severely limited democratic freedom in the country. Most countries (including the G7) do not recognize the Taliban government.
Before the takeover, the president was both chief of state and head of government.
Legislative Power
Before the takeover of the Talibans in 2021, the legislative power was bicameral. The parliament, or the National Assembly, was composed of an upper and lower house. The lower house, Wolesi Jirga, was the more powerful of the two houses, and its members (no more than 250, the 2004 electoral law set the size of the house at 249 members) were elected by the people for a five-year term. The upper house, Meshrano Jirga, used to be composed of 102 seats and its members served 5-year terms.

The National Assembly was effectively dissolved on 15 August 2021 after the fall of Kabul.

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Not Free

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Latest Update: April 2024