Greece flag Greece: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Greece

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Katerina Sakellaropoulou (since 13 March 2020)
Prime Minister: Kyriakos Mitsotakis (since 26 June 2023)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: February 2025
Parliamentary: 2027
Current Political Context
The incumbent centre-right and liberal party New Democracy (ND) triumphed in the June 2023 elections, clinching 40.6% of the vote and securing 158 out of 300 parliamentary seats, including the 50 bonus seats awarded to the majority. Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis has thus obtained a second mandate to continue implementing an EU-backed reform and modernization agenda, encompassing initiatives like the electrification of the auto fleet, digitization of public services, upskilling of the labour force, and enhancing energy efficiency in homes. Opposition parties experienced widespread weakening, with the left-wing Syriza achieving the lowest result for a main opposition party in modern Greek democracy with 17% of the votes.
In the realm of geopolitics, a significant challenge lies in effectively handling tensions between Greece and Turkey, as the maritime claim disputes in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean seas persist, alongside concerns related to refugee management.
Main Political Parties
The main political parties/alliances currently represented in the Greek parliament include:

- New Democracy (ND): centre-right. ND's policies are based on free-market economics and social conservatism. It obtained 158 seats thanks to the majority bonus system
- Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA): left-wing anti-establishment, populist, anti-austerity (47 seats)
- Movement For Change (PASOK-KINAL): centre-left; it is a breakaway faction from SYRIZA that was formed in 2021
- Communist Party of Greece (KKE): Marxist-Leninist, the oldest party in Greece
- Spartans: far-right political party, it has strong connections with the extreme-right Golden Dawn
- Greek Solution: right-wing, ultranationalist. It was formed in 2016 by former Golden Dawn MP Ilias Kasidiaris
- Democratic Patriotic Movement (Victory): conservatism, Christian nationalism
- Course of Freedom: anti‑establishment, left-wing populist.

Executive Power
According to the Constitution, executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic and the Government. The role of the President in the executive branch has been reduced to ceremonial since 1986. The post of Prime Minister, Greece's head of government, belongs to the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a parliamentary majority. The President of the Republic formally appoints the Prime Minister and, on his or her recommendation, appoints and dismisses the other members of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister exercises vast political power and the amendment of 1986 further strengthened their position to the detriment of the President of the Republic.
Legislative Power
Legislative power is exercised by a 300-member unicameral Parliament. Statutes passed by the Parliament are promulgated by the President of the Republic. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, but the President of the Republic is required to dissolve the Parliament earlier on the proposal of the Cabinet, when faced with a national issue of exceptional importance. The President is also required to dissolve the Parliament earlier than scheduled if the opposition succeeds to pass a motion of no confidence.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
70/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
1/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Latest Update: February 2024