Philippines (the) flag Philippines (the): Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of the Philippines

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders

President: Ferdinand "Bongbong" MARCOS, Jr (since 30 June 2022)
Vice-President: Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (since 30 June 2022)

Next Election Dates
Presidential: May 2028
Senate: May 2025
House of Representatives: May 2025
Current Political Context
In May 2022, Filipinos went to the polls to cast their votes for the country's new president. Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr, the son of a former long-serving president, Rodrigo Duterte, won the elections and succeeded him in office, while Duterte’s daughter, Sara Duterte-Carpio, became vice-president. As an ideological ally of former President Duterte, President Marcos is expected to continue the policy course pursued by the Duterte administration.
Among his government's notable policies that should continue with the new administration, are the country's intense campaign against drug crime, the rebalancing of relations with the U.S., strengthening ties with China (even though some tensions linger with relation to territorial disputes in the South China Sea), and closer cooperation with neighbouring Indonesia and Malaysia. Despite the vulnerability of its relationship with Beijing due to disputes over territories in the South China Sea, in early 2023, both countries pledged to address the issue through "friendly consultations". Meanwhile, the Philippines maintains historical ties with and receives growing military support from the U.S.: in February 2023, amid tensions between China and the United States' ally Taiwan, the Philippines granted the United States expanded access to its military bases.
Combating maritime piracy and terrorist groups were other priorities, as well as the introduction of universal health care (currently 93%) and free education from pre-school up to a basic university degree level, and boosting the Filipino economy. Furthermore, Marcos intends to go on with his father's “Build, Build, Build” programme, a centrepiece of the Duterte administration, which aims to usher in the “Golden age of infrastructure” in the Philippines and boost economic development in the country. To do so, the government aims to further develop the relationship with China, as investments from the country have been paramount for the success of the programme.
Lastly, in November 2023, the House of Representatives Committees on human rights and justice adopted two resolutions urging the government to collaborate with the International Criminal Court (ICC) in its investigation into the Duterte administration's drug war.
Main Political Parties
The Philippines has a multi-party system and political parties usually have diverse ideologies. As a result, parties generally work together to form coalition governments. The largest political parties in the country are:

- Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas-CMD): centre to centre-right, conservative political party with religious overtones
- Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban): centre-left, democratic socialism, populism
- National Unity Party (NUP): centre-right, Christian democracy
- Nationalist Party (NP): centre-right, conservatism, populism. Oldest party in the country and historically dominated the political arena
- Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC): centre-right, social and liberal conservatism
- Partido Federal ng Pilipinas (PFP): populist, federalist
- Liberal Party (LP): centre to centre-left, liberal, endeavours to tackle poverty and promote economic growth.

Executive Power

The President is both the Chief of State and head of Government and is directly elected by a popular vote to serve a single six-year term without the possibility of re-election, even if non-consecutive. He or she presides over and appoints the Cabinet members, and is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President holds the executive powers which include the implementation of the law in the country and running the day-to-day affairs. If the President resigns, is impeached or dies, the Vice President assumes the presidency.

Legislative Power

The legislature in the Philippines is bicameral. The parliament, called the Congress, consists of: the Senate (the upper house) having 24 seats with its members elected mostly by popular vote to serve (renewable) six-year terms, and the House of Representatives (the lower house) having 316 seats, with its members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms - with a limit of three consecutive terms. The President has the power to veto acts of the legislature, and in turn a supermajority (generally two-thirds) of legislators may act to override his veto. The people of the Philippines enjoy considerable political rights.

 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
138/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Partly Free
Political Freedom:
3/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

Return to top

Any Comment About This Content? Report It to Us.

 

© eexpand, All Rights Reserved.
Latest Update: February 2024