Poland flag Poland: Economic and Political Overview

Foreign trade figures of Poland

Foreign Trade in Figures

Poland is open to international trade, which represents 105.6% of its GDP (World Bank, latest data available). The geographical location gives Poland strategic importance: the country is in fact situated halfway between Paris and Moscow and between Stockholm and Budapest, and it has important ports that are connected to the North Sea through the Baltic Sea. In addition, the country constitutes an excellent place for the export of merchandise to the former Soviet republics. The country mainly exports parts of motor vehicles, automatic data-processing machines, seats, furniture, and electric accumulators; importing motor cars, petroleum oils, parts of vehicles, phones and medicaments.

In 2020, the main trading partners were Germany (28.9%), the Czech Republic (5.9%), the United Kingdom (5.7%) and France (5.6%); while the top import origins were Germany (21.9%), China (14.4%), Italy (5%), and Russia (4.5% - data Comtrade). Overall, the EU accounts for 74% of Poland’s total exports and 55.4% of its imports (data Statistics Poland).

Since Poland became a member of the European Union, its exports have increased by more than 30%. The country historically had a structurally negative trade balance; nevertheless, since 2013 this trend has reversed: when computing both goods and services, in 2020 Poland had a positive trade balance estimated at 6.8% of its GDP (was 4.7% one year earlier - World Bank). According to data from WTO, in 2020 the country exported USD 271 billion worth of goods (-1.6% year-on-year), whereas imports stood at USD 257.1 billion (-3% y-o-y), showing Poland’s external trade resilience amid the global Covid-19-induced crisis. Concerning services, exports stood at USD 67 billion (-4.1% y-o-y), with imports decreasing at a faster pace (7.4-% y-o-y, at USD 40 billion). The latest figures from Statistics Poland show that foreign trade turnover in January-October 2021 in exports at current prices amounted to PLN 1,059.1 billion (marking an increase of 22.5% on the same period one year earlier), while imports stood at PLN 1,054.5 billion (+27.5% y-o-y). In the same period, Germany kept being the main export and import partner (28.6% and 21%, respectively).

 
Foreign Trade Values 20162017201820192020
Imports of Goods (million USD) 197,312233,812268,959265,282257,177
Exports of Goods (million USD) 202,522234,364263,569266,595271,059
Imports of Services (million USD) 33,84738,07142,86943,32940,085
Exports of Services (million USD) 49,01058,40167,96469,92767,002

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20162017201820192020
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 100.1104.6107.4106.4104.5
Trade Balance (million USD) 2,262-463-7,3271,33914,262
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 17,48419,70717,79427,80841,099
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 7.910.27.43.3-2.6
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 9.39.66.95.1-0.5
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 48.250.452.250.848.9
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 51.954.255.255.555.6

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20212022 (e)2023 (e)2024 (e)2025 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 11.35.24.94.24.2
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 15.46.45.34.84.8

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Poland is a member of the following international economic organisations: IMF, European Union, ICC, Central European Initiative (CEI), WTO, OECD, Schengen Convention, among others. For the full list of economic and other international organisations in which participates Poland click here. International organisation membership of Poland is also outlined here.
Free Trade Agreements
The complete and up-to-date list of Free Trade Agreements signed by Poland can be consulted here.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2020
Germany 28.9%
Czech Republic 5.9%
United Kingdom 5.7%
France 5.6%
Netherlands 4.2%
See More Countries 49.6%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2020
Germany 21.9%
China 14.4%
Italy 5.0%
Russia 4.5%
Netherlands 3.9%
See More Countries 50.2%

Source: Comtrade, 2022. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

254.2 bn USD of products exported in 2020
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 4.8%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 2.5%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 2.3%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 2.2%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 2.1%
See More Products 86.1%
254.7 bn USD of products imported in 2020
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.5%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 3.1%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 2.7%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 2.2%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses incl. those in the form of transdermal administration or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.1%
See More Products 86.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2022. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.

 

Main Services

14.3 bn USD of services exported in 2018
29.31%
26.15%
22.74%
11.74%
3.70%
1.85%
1.44%
1.36%
1.01%
0.69%
9.6 bn USD of services imported in 2018
27.41%
23.21%
20.85%
9.87%
8.92%
2.65%
2.58%
1.70%
1.56%
1.25%

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2021. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Latest Update: June 2022