Singapore flag Singapore: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Singapore

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Mrs. Halimah Yacob (since 14 September 2017)
Prime Minister: LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004, reelected 10 July 2020) - PAP
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2023
Parliamentary: 2025
Current Political Context
Even though it won 83 out of 95 seats, the People's Action Party (PAP), which has governed the country since independence in 1965, came out relatively weakened in the July 2020 general election, where it won 61% of the vote, down from 70% in 2015. The biggest opposition group, the Workers' Party, had its best result to date, winning 10 seats. Although he initially promised he would step down from power before he turned 70 in February 2022, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, son of founding statesman Lee Kwan Yew, has eventually said he will not resign until the economic and health crisis is resolved. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the Singapore economy has been broad and significant since 2020, affecting different sectors of the economy to varying degrees. The country has injected an aggregated 73.7billion USD stimulus into the economy, its biggest in history. Despite social restrictions and border closures, Singapore's economy returned to growth in 2021.
Main Political Parties
Although Singapore is a multi-party nation, the centre-right People's Action Party (PAP) has dominated its legislature since 1959 and continues to hold an overwhelming majority of the single-chamber parliament.

Opposition parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Some opposition groups include:
- Singapore Democratic Party (SDP): a liberal democratic party
- Workers' Party of Singapore (WP): centre-left, opposition party with the most seats
- Progress Singapore Party (centre-right)
Executive Power
The President of Singapore is the head of State. The role of the President is largely ceremonial. Following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed Prime Minister by the President as head of the Government. The Prime Minister enjoys all of the executive powers, which include implementation of the law and running day-to-day affairs.
Legislative Power
The legislature is unicameral in Singapore. The Parliament consists of up to 105 seats: Ninety-three are elected by the people while up to 12 Non-constituency Members of Parliament (NCMP) and up to nine Nominated Members of Parliament (NMP) may be appointed. After the 2020 general election, 93 MPs were elected and two NCMPs were appointed (or, in the terms of the Parliamentary Elections Act, declared elected) to Parliament. Parliament controls the action of the government. This depends on the support of parliament, often expressed by a vote of confidence.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
160/180

Source: World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Partly Free
Political Freedom:
4/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Latest Update: June 2022