Singapore flag Singapore: Economic outline

Economic Outline

Economic Indicators

Singapore's economy is characterised by excellent finances and a high degree of openness, with the country being highly dependent on international trade. According to preliminary data, after growing by 3.6% in 2022, Singapore's economy expanded by 1.2% last year, managing to steer clear of a recession despite the global economic slowdown attributed to elevated interest rates. Singapore's aviation and tourism-related sectors also saw positive outcomes due to a rebound in visitor arrivals. On the other hand, the export-oriented manufacturing sector, especially the electronics industry, encountered reduced demand from significant trading partners, although it started to register growth in the final quarter. The Ministry of Trade and Industry anticipates Singapore's growth for 2024 to fall within the range of 1% to 3%, foreseeing a potential recovery in semiconductors and other export sectors (+2.1% according to the IMF forecast).

In recent years, government expenditure has remained hefty, driven by increased development spending, particularly in areas such as transport infrastructure, healthcare, and the environment. Additionally, support measures were introduced to assist households and businesses in dealing with the challenges posed by high inflation. Nevertheless, the government budget returned to positive territory in 2023, at 0.7% of GDP (from -1.3% one year earlier – IMF). In 2024, a one-percentage-point rise in the Goods and Services Tax (from 8% to 9%) and accelerated economic growth are projected to contribute to an increase in tax receipts. Although the recorded public debt appears elevated on paper, at 167.9% of GDP in 2023, it primarily serves the purpose of establishing a domestic safe asset market. This debt is predominantly comprised of long-term bonds and securities. Furthermore, substantial reserves accumulated from prior fiscal surpluses (ranging from 200-300% of GDP) are available to address infrequent budget deficits when necessary. Meanwhile, inflation remained elevated in 2023, at 5.5%, but is expected to follow a downward trend over the forecast horizon (3.5% this year and 2.5% in 2025) amid a tight fiscal policy.

Although per capita wealth in Singapore is amongst the highest in the region, unemployment has appeared due to structural economic changes (outsourcing of low-skilled work) and the COVID-19 crisis. However, the labour market continued to expand for the ninth straight quarter at the end of 2023, with increases for both residents and non-residents. The country has one of the highest GDP per capita in the world, estimated at USD 133,108 in 2023 by the IMF (PPP). Social challenges include rising income inequality and social discontent caused by overpopulation, high competition for employment and housing, lack of skilled labour, an ageing population, and distrust towards immigration.

Main Indicators 20222023 (E)2024 (E)2025 (E)2026 (E)
GDP (billions USD) 498.48501.43525.23548.15573.47
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change)
GDP per Capita (USD) 88,42984,73488,44791,68595,272
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -
General Government Gross Debt (in % of GDP) 158.2162.1162.5163.1163.8
Inflation Rate (%)
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labour Force)
Current Account (billions USD) 89.7099.1394.7997.6899.79
Current Account (in % of GDP) 18.019.818.017.817.4

Source: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, 2016

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Monetary Indicators 20162017201820192020
Singapore Dollar (SGD) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 GHS 0.350.320.290.270.25

Source: World Bank, 2015


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Latest Update: June 2024