Bielorrússia flag Bielorrússia: Contexto político-econômico

Valores de comércio da Bielorrússia

Foreign Trade in Figures

The Belarusian economy is predominantly state-owned, with over 70% of GDP generated by public or parastatal enterprises. Simultaneously, it remains highly open to international trade, which constitutes 122% of its GDP (World Bank, latest data available). Belarus exports a variety of products including oil and petroleum products, fertilizers, trucks and tractors, spare parts, milk and cheese, meat products, furniture and timber, and tires. A significant portion of its manufactured goods, over 60%, is exported to foreign markets. Notably, the mechanical engineering industry plays a crucial role, with 75% of goods in this segment sold outside the country (official governmental data). On the import side, Belarus primarily brings in petroleum oils, petroleum gas, motorized vehicles for passenger transport, and medicaments (data by Comtrade).

In 2022, Belarus' major trading partners included Russia (35.0%), Poland (4.0%), Ukraine (3.0%), Lithuania (3.0%), and Germany (2.0%). Conversely, imports were chiefly sourced from Russia (28.6%), China (8.1%), Germany (3.6%), Ukraine (3.4%), and Poland (2.5% - data Comtrade). Due to historical ties from the Soviet era, Belarus' economy remains heavily concentrated on the Russian market, serving as both a major outlet and supplier. Notably, in 2022, Belarus achieved a trade surplus with Russia for the first time. Recent developments have seen strengthened trade relations with China, particularly through Beijing's New Silk Road project. However, the European Union, Belarus' second-largest trading partner, withheld ratification of the bilateral partnership and cooperation agreement due to concerns over "Belarus' lack of commitment to democracy and political and civil rights."

Belarus' trade balance has experienced fluctuations in recent years. In 2022, exports amounted to USD 22.8 billion (-42.6% y-o-y) for goods and USD 9.2 billion (-10.8%) for commercial services, while imports totaled USD 38.6 billion (-6.6% y-o-y) for goods and USD 5 billion (-11.3%) for commercial services (data by WTO). The World Bank reports Belarus registered a trade surplus of 5.8% of GDP in 2022 (from 5.6% one year earlier). Preliminary figures from Belstat indicate that in 2023, the foreign trade turnover of Belarus reached USD 83.4 billion, with exports at USD 40.1 billion and imports totaling USD 43.2 billion.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 38,40939,47732,76741,38738,655
Exports of Goods (million USD) 33,72632,95529,17939,76222,793
Imports of Services (million USD) 5,4065,8524,8475,6765,033
Exports of Services (million USD) 8,8389,6428,78810,3139,201

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 139.4130.9118.9136.0121.6
Trade Balance (million USD) -2,503-4,193-1,993-667385
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 929-4031,9483,9714,566
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 25.35.1-7.45.7-18.1
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 12.91.0-3.710.1-20.8
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 68.965.857.965.257.9
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 70.565.161.070.863.7

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 2.01.50.61.11.1
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 1.92.11.22.01.4

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Belarus is member of:
- The Eurasian Economic Union
- The Eurasian Economic Community
- The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 
Belarus also signed in 2009 a Free Trade Agreement with Serbia.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2021
Russia 35.0%
Poland 4.0%
Ukraine 3.0%
Lithuania 3.0%
Germany 2.0%
See More Countries 53.0%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2021
Russia 28.6%
China 8.1%
Germany 3.6%
Ukraine 3.4%
Poland 2.5%
See More Countries 53.7%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

39.9 bn USD of products exported in 2021
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 3.0%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 2.0%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 1.6%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 1.4%
Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added...Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 1.4%
See More Products 90.7%
41.8 bn USD of products imported in 2021
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 2.9%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 1.4%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 1.2%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 1.1%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 1.1%
See More Products 92.3%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

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