Bulgária flag Bulgária: Esboço econômico

Esboço econômico

Indicadores econômicos

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.

The Covid-19 pandemic hit Bulgaria at a time when its economy was performing well. Before the sanitary crisis, a series of structural reforms, the highly successful integration of Bulgarian manufacturing firms into world production chains, and sound macroeconomic management had led to five years of growth rates above 3%, rapidly rising real wages and historically low unemployment. After falling into recession in 2020, the economy rebounded and grew an estimated 4.2% in 2021 and 3.9% in 2022, supported by robust growth in exports and by wage and social transfer increases partly compensated for increasing consumer prices. Increased EU funds absorption, notably of the Recovery and Resilience Facility, should support aggregate investment in both 2023 and 2024 when the economy is forecast to grow by 3% and 4.1%, respectively (IMF).

The country's public finances are relatively strong, with a low debt-to-GDP ratio, estimated at 22.8% in 2022. Nevertheless, the IMF expects the ratio to grow over the forecast horizon, to 25.2% this year and 26.9% in 2024. The government budget recorded a deficit of BGN 1.5 billion, around 1% of GDP in 2022 as per the latest government figures, with a forecast of 1.9% and 1.4% this year and the next respectively, according to the IMF. Energy and food prices fuelled inflation, which reached 13% in 2022 (EU Commission). Overall, HICP inflation is set to decline to 5.2% in 2023 on account of lower energy prices, before decelerating further the following year (2.2% - IMF).

The unemployment rate was estimated at 5.1% in 2022 when wage and social transfer increases compensated for rising consumer prices. In 2023, wages are expected to continue to grow firmly and underpin household consumption, while the unemployment rate is forecasted to decrease to 4.7%. Bulgaria is classified as an upper-middle income country, with a GDP per capita (PPP) estimated at USD 29,178 in 2022 by the IMF, compared to an EU average of USD 53,960. Nevertheless, income inequality in Bulgaria is among the highest in the EU, and almost 31.7% of the population is at risk of poverty (the second-highest rate in the EU after Romania).

 
Indicadores de crescimento 202020212022 (E)2023 (E)2024 (E)
PIB (bilhões de USD) 70.3584.1289.12100.64105.92
PIB (crescimento anual em %, preço constante) -4.07.63.41.43.5
PIB per capita (USD) 10,17112,30013,10914,89315,770
Saldo do Balanço de Pagamentos (em % do PIB) -2.3-3.7-1.2-3.2-3.1
Dívida Pública (em % do PIB) 23.222.821.821.122.9
Índice de inflação (%) 1.22.813.07.52.2
Taxa de desemprego (% da população economicamente ativa) 5.25.34.34.64.4
Balanço das transações correntes (bilhões de USD) 0.03-1.56-0.61-0.49-1.07
Balanço das transações correntes (em % do PIB) 0.0-1.9-0.7-0.5-1.0

Fonte: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, 2016

Nota: (e) Dado estimativo

 
Indicadores monetários 20162017201820192020
Bulgarian Lev (BGN) - Taxa cambial média anual em relação ao 1 GHS 0.440.400.360.330.31

Fonte: World Bank, 2015

 

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Últimas atualizações em May 2023